Non-addictive painkillers, like ibuprofen and acetaminophen, can be just as effective as prescription opioids at reducing certain types of pain.
Chang AK, Bijur PE, Esses D, Barnaby DP, Baer J. Effect of a Single Dose of Oral Opioid and Nonopioid Analgesics on Acute Extremity Pain in the Emergency DepartmentA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA.2017;318(17):1661–1667. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.16190
Individuals who are prescribed opioids prior to graduating high school are 33% more likely to misuse prescription opioids after graduating.
Prescription Opioids in Adolescence and Future Opioid Misuse Richard Miech, Lloyd Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Katherine M. Keyes, Kennon Heard Pediatrics Nov 2015, 136 (5) e1169-e1177; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-1364
Smokers are more likely to be opioid abusers than non-smokers.
Zale EL, Dorfman ML, Hooten WM, Warner DO, Zvolensky MJ, Ditre JW. Tobacco Smoking, Nicotine Dependence, and Patterns of Prescription Opioid Misuse: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014;17(9):1096-103.
Some studies have found vapes to contain lead, nickel, tin, silver, formaldehyde, manganese, toluene, and other chemicals linked to cancer and central nervous system problems.
Williams, M., Villarreal, A., Bozhilov, K., Lin, S., & Talbot, P. (n.d.). Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aerosol. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23526962
Propylene glycol can become formaldehyde — a carcinogen — when heated to vaping temperatures.
Salamanca, J. C., Meehan-Atrash, J., Vreeke, S., Escobedo, J. O., Peyton, D. H., & Strongin, R. M. (2018). E-cigarettes can emit formaldehyde at high levels under conditions that have been reported to be non-averse to users. Scientific reports, 8(1), 7559. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-25907-6